The Sound of Speech 0 to 3 years

The Ages and Stages of Children’s Speech Development

The most intensive period of speech and language development happens in the first three years of life.

Even though children vary in their development of speech and language, there are certain ‘milestones’ that can be identified as a guide to normal development. Typically, these skills must be reached at certain ages before more complex skills can be learned.

Babies: 0-1 year

During their first year, children develop the ability to hear and recognize the sounds of their parent’s language. They experiment with sounds by babbling (e.g., “baba”, “babamada”), and over time, their babbling begins to sound more and more like real words.

What can most babies do?

  •     Between 0-3 months babies communicate by crying, cooing, smiling, and making eye contact
  •     Between 3-6 months babies communicate by crying, cooing, smiling, making eye contact, pointing and laughing
  •     Between 6-9 months babies communicate by babbling, using sounds made with the lips ( e.g., b and m) in sequences like “baba” and later “bamada”
  •     Between 9-12 months babies communicate by babbling, using more sounds (e.g., d, m, n, h, w, t)
  •     Around 12 months babies begin to use words

What do many babies still find difficult?

Babies can’t say words the same way as adults do and often simplify words (e.g., biscuit becomes “bi”).

How can parents help?

Children who do not progress through this stage of “playing with sounds” are at risk of speech difficulties later. Parents can help by talking to their infants and responding to any attempts by their infants to communicate (e.g., by copying their babbling).

Toddlers: 1-3 years

Toddlers experience a huge development in speech sounds and triple the number of words they can say between 1 and 2 years of age. As a result, their speech becomes easier to understand. At 2 years, half of their speech should be understood, and at 3 years, most of their speech should be understood by family and friends.

What can most toddlers do?

  •     By 2 years, toddlers can say a range of speech sounds when talking (e.g., p, b, m, t, n, h, w)
  •     By 3 years, toddlers can say even more sounds (e.g. k, g, f, s, ng)

What do many toddlers still find difficult?

Many toddlers have difficulty saying sounds correctly all the time. Some words are more difficult than others for children to say, so they may make some sound errors (e.g. “tat” for “cat” and “pam” for “pram”). Sometimes children can be more difficult to understand when they are using longer sentences.

What can parents do to help?

Parents can continue to help their toddler’s speech development by modeling the correct way of saying words, particularly when children make occasional sound errors. However, if a toddler’s speech is very difficult for parents to understand, or if children are using gestures in place of words, parents should contact a speech pathologist for further advice.